All of the municipal operators provide some cross-boundary services. Several TTC bus routes extend into surrounding regions, while Brampton, Durham, Mississauga, and York operate services to TTC subway terminals and to major nearby destinations (mostly university campuses, hospitals and shopping centres).
Brampton and York regions have established their own special "brands" for their express services, Zum and VIVA. TTC has also introduced several express routes, some requiring payment of an extra fare. GO also provides express bus services on a network of routes.
There are many streets on which services overlap, and where passengers may be confused by the number of different operators, with different fares and timetables. In many cases, operating costs and passenger wait and journey times could be reduced if some routes were combined, or operated jointly by two operators. Metrolinx should be making this happen.